How new petrol engines have more mileage

Fuel injector
We all know that Electric vehicles will be the future of the automotive industry but have you noticed the improvement in the IC engines made. EV’s might be the future but IC engines are also improved and are likely to stick with us for another two decades ahead.

What techs do they use?

CVT
Continuously Variable Transmission 
A belt or a chain is driven by two pulleys and one of the pulleys is variable. That meaning it can increase or decrease diameter depending on the RPM. The variable pulley will have properly balanced weight and spring setup inside that will vary the diameter due to centrifugal force. 
Direct Fuel Injection
As you all know before air and fuel were mixed and then sent to the engine chamber. Direct fuel injectors use electronic fuel injectors to directly inject the fuel into the cylinder due to which the timing for fuel injection can be controlled.
Cylinder deactivation
Cylinder Deactivation
As the name suggests, a set of cylinders can be deactivated in some engines with 6 or more than 6 cylinders. Whenever the vehicle is cruising a subset of cylinders can be deactivated without noticing any change. 
Auto Start Stop
The auto start stop turns the ignition off when the vehicle is at a red right and starts the engine automatically when ready to move. This tech avoids the engine idling for longer duration hence reducing fuel efficiency.
Turbocharger
Turbochargers and superchargers
Turbochargers or superchargers send compressed air to the cylinder that will put out more power. This might not improve the fuel efficiency but improves performance.
Variable valve Timing and Lift
Valves are used to control the flow of fuel and air into and from the cylinder. In variable valves, their timing and opening lift can be controlled at different RPM.

Maruti Suzuki’s K-series engine

K-series engine
The K-series engine is a series of petrol engines used by Maruti Suzuki (Suzuki globally) and is specifically made for India. Maruti Suzuki uses only petrol engines and discarded its diesel line-up after BS6 norms. Previously, G-series engines in the old swift with the G12 petrol engine used to return a mileage of 17kmpl. The new swift with K12 engine has a mileage of up to 23kmpl with all the added technologies.
k-series engine
The complete engine block is  made of aluminum that will reduce the weight and improve efficiency. The pistons are resin coated which will reduce the friction and of course increasing efficiency and performance also. All the bearings are said to be low friction bearings to increase reliability. It has an innovative rocker-less DOHC (Dual overhead camshaft) and a fully plastic intake manifold.

Toyota’s Dynamic Force engine

Toyota's Dynamic flow engine
Toyota’s new Dynamic force engine adopts high-speed combustion technologies and a variable control system but the engine shines when it comes to thermal efficiency. It has world-leading thermal efficiency of 40% and 41% if used with a hybrid powertrain. In addition, the new engine also offers increased torque at all engine speeds compared to other engines.
Dynamic flow engine
The engine has a 1:2 bore and stroke ratio and each cylinder will be 500cc combined which will lead to better compression. The angle between the intake and exhaust valve is increased from 31 degree to 41 degree. This will change the angle of intake to a tumble flow. The intake port has a laser cladded seat that will make it more efficient.

Image Credits:
Toyota
Audi
Maruti Suzuki

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